Dr Mark Dinwoodie, MPS Head of Member Education, takes a look at different models of triage for general practice
The concept of triage is nothing new. The word ‘triage’ comes from the French verb ‘trier’, which means ‘to sort’. Napoleon’s surgeon-general was the first to institute battlefield ‘triage’. As the number of patient contacts in general practice steadily rises and the nature of healthcare becomes increasingly complex, it is perhaps not surprising that many view triage as a way of safely managing increasing demand while also meeting patients’ understandable desires for a timely response to their requests for urgent healthcare. Telephone triage and telephone consultations aim to improve access to care.
The purpose of triage is to ensure that the patient is referred to the appropriate clinician for the appropriate level of care within an appropriate period of time. The initial phase of triage is often undertaken by patients themselves. Many will have reflected on their condition and considered who they feel they need to see and in what timeframe. Others will have consulted with friends, neighbours, relatives or work colleagues.
Many practices use experienced practice nurses/nurse practitioners to undertake the role of triage, usually by telephone, for requests for urgent or same day appointments. They assess the patient’s symptoms and concerns, and then agree with the patient how these needs might best be met by giving telephone advice or a face to face appointment, along with an indication of the appropriate urgency.1
Develop a practice based triage protocol which clearly outlines the steps of the triage process and the roles and responsibilities of those involved
Small scale studies have shown that telephone triage is acceptable to patients.2 A Cochrane review of telephone consulting and triage in 2009 found only nine studies that met its criteria and these showed that telephone triage and consulting reduced immediate GP face-to-face consultations and home visits and that approximately half of the calls could be dealt with on the phone.3 However two studies showed an increase in later consultations suggesting simply a delay or postponement. The evidence base may be enriched by a study currently underway to evaluate usual (non-triage) care, computer supported nurse-led triage, and GP-led triage for patients requesting same day appointments in general practice, assessing outcomes in terms of workload, cost, safety, patient satisfaction and health status.4
There are important consultation skills needed to triage safely and effectively manage telephone consultations, which are highlighted in a previous MPS article.5 To help ensure reliability and consistency in terms of the triage assessment, decision-support software systems have been used predominantly by out-of-hours service providers and more recently by some practices. They inevitably have a balance between sensitivity and specificity for correctly identifying problems requiring urgent attention and can take longer.6
Challenges of triage
Some people would argue that clinical triage is one of the most challenging aspects of clinical practice and so should be undertaken by those with the most clinical experience. A number of initiatives and practices report a range of benefits in offering GP triage and telephone consultations to all calls from patients requesting GP appointments, in effect “total triage”.
When considering introducing a triage system to your practice, it’s worth reflecting on the purposes of triage, the potential benefits and risks involved, and until more evidence is available, adopting the type of triage that meets the needs of your patients and the practice.
Identify red flag symptoms that should prompt an urgent response by reception staff
Inevitably, triage overlaps with issues such as patient access, capacity and demand, telephone and appointment systems, skill mix, “Duty Doctor” role, patient demographics and staffing levels and should be considered in conjunction with these.
What matters when patients contact their surgery with an urgent need is whether they can get through, whether they will be correctly identified and whether they will be seen or dealt with quickly.7
An important point to make is that triage and telephone consulting are not synonymous. For example, while patients or their carers may request telephone advice for an acute problem, it is dangerous to assume that this automatically means the problem can be appropriately managed by a telephone consultation. Though they may occur in the same phone call, the triage and consultation components should be distinct, otherwise there is a danger that the triage part becomes overlooked.
The usual starting point for triage is for the receptionist to establish the patient’s assessment of the degree of urgency. Establishing information as to the nature of the problem, severity, duration and particular concerns can help prioritise the urgency with which they need to be seen or action taken and this information can be passed onto the relevant clinician who may subsequently deal with the patient.
Ensure that any staff member, including reception staff, document full details of the call in the patient's clinical notes
Patients sometimes find receptionists asking them questions about their condition as unnecessarily intrusive, something that can be resolved with a sensitive approach and an explanation as to why the information is helpful to ensure that they receive appropriate and timely assessment, ie, signposting the triage process. The discussion can also help establish patient preferences and any choices available in the triage process, eg, a phone call back from a duty clinician or an urgent appointment.
Reception staff should not make any clinical judgment about patients’ needs or attempt to make a diagnosis. If they are involved in preliminary triage or prioritisation they should follow a clear protocol with algorithms and be supported to default to a safer option of speaking to a clinician if unsure or if the patient is unhappy with a proposed plan.
Algorithms and protocols
Algorithms and protocols will need to be tailored to individual practices. Many practices have adopted a traffic light system or a range of standard actions for patient reported symptoms and groups of patients so as to appropriately prioritise the response for the receptionist. These actions might include: call 999; advise the patient to attend A&E; interrupt clinician straightaway; speak to clinician as soon as available (within 15 minutes); make appointment today; make an appointment tomorrow or make routine appointment. Actions should be based on likely patient symptoms rather than diagnoses. A list of potentially life-threatening symptoms, eg, vomiting blood would therefore be in the “call 999” box or “interrupt clinician straightaway” depending on practice preference. An animal bite might be in the “make appointment today”. These issues are discussed in more detail in MPS’s publication The GP Compass.8
Safety netting advice should always be given when triaging urgent requests, ie, seek medical help sooner if there is deterioration in the patient’s condition or increasing concern.
Ensure clinicians have access to up to date clinical information and guidelines
Detailed documentation of the telephone assessment is vital. It is important that the medical records include enough detail to justify the proposed management and to demonstrate that appropriate management of the patient’s problem can take place without the need for a face-to-face consultation, where necessary.
With careful introduction and consideration of the issues outlined above, triage can provide a useful way for a general practice to ensure that patients are dealt with by the right person in the right place at the right time, and minimise the likelihood that potentially urgent or emergency conditions will be overlooked,
whilst facilitating patient access to care.
- Baylis D (2012), Nurse telephone triage, Your Practice, Vol 6, Issue 2 (2012)
- Gallagher et al (1998), Telephone triage of acute illness by a practice nurse in general practice: outcomes of care, Br J Gen Pract. 1998 Apr;48(429):1141-5
- Bunn F et al (2004), Telephone consultation and triage: effects on health care use and patient satisfaction, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD004180. DOI:0.1002/14651858.CD004180.pub2
- Campbell JL et al (2013), The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone triage of patients requesting same day consultations in general practice: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing nurse-led and GP-led management systems (ESTEEM), Trials. (2013) 4;14:4. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-14-4
- Males T (2012), In the dark. Risk of telephone consultations, Sessional GP Vol 4, Issue 2, (2012)
- Males T (2007), Telephone consultations in Primary Care; a practical guide, Royal College of General Practitioners (ISBN 978-0-85084-306-4)
- Primary Care Foundation, Urgent care. A practical guide to transforming same-day care in general practice (2009)
- Nisselle P. Triage in General Practice, The GP Compass pages 82-86